Historia de Cangas

First human settlements . culture Castreña

Or facho

At the western end of the Peninsula of Morrazo , individualized contour and high above the ocean , Mount Facho over centuries hosted the various expressions of life in the region, the sound also in the history of Galicia.

First, from the tenth century B.C. even the seventh century B.C. , there was a village on the eastern slope of the penalties we have no information except its exceptional size

From the sixth century B.C. the Galician castro, fortified populated that even subsist the first century arises la.C. From him we can still see part of the walls , the moat , the stones that made their homes and now cover the slopes of Mount , heaps of garbage on the banks of the village or the current topography of the mountain which derives both from the construction itself how populated the natural setting.

Later , a shrine built on the summit will pick up the old beliefs of those who had lived in the castro to provide them , throughout the centuries II to IV AD, a young character , now marked pole process of assimilation of Latino culture in the region of the Roman empire called Gallaecia. inally in the eighteenth century as military coastal surveillance which survives the gatehouse is built purposes .  

161 altars appeared , in which he married two thousand years must have been a forest of interest raised on the mountain top . ( Pictured Enrique Massó appears in 1963 , surrounded by Aras ) .

Votive altars , ara in Latin, are the most significant of the excavations of Mount Facho findings. Its function was to offer it to God a small monument that includes an inscription exvoto his condition , the divinity to which it is addressed and , sometimes , the name of dedicator and / or the reasons for the offering. Examples of Mount Facho note the interpretation by the Roman galaicos original models . Beside few classic examples , we find the reformulation of the Galician provincial environment, with variations in morfoloxía and ornamental enrichment until later in the final stages of the sanctuary very remote forms of the Roman models . A process that expresses the creation of an aesthetic and symbolic Galician- Roman identity.

Berobreo sanctuary was available in a sloping area surrounding the mountain top . There are remains of columns that indicate the existence of a building , but so far we only know a willingness to open altars , kneeling on the ground and in large numbers , occupied much of the area sky. A buildup that caused the trend of monuments to be narrow and high , setting sight what looked like a " forest order " . At the end of the existence of the sanctuary, the place was abandoned ; the interest will fall and acopiándose , sometimes fragmented , so remain to this day

Roman empire

Berobreo : galaica enigmatic deity.

In Facho Hill , there is a grain of Late Bronze Age settlement , dated between the ninth and seventh centuries la.C. On the opposite side of the hill, a great fort of the Iron Age appears , founded in the sixth century la.C. , which was abandoned shortly before or shortly after the Roman conquest. And the croaks , a shrine dedicated to an unknown god pantheon galaicorromano researchers poles even the 60 : Bero Breo .

There is no possible interpretation for the Berobreo god who was worshiped there. All written as contained in the order is that it is a "DiosLlar", ie, a domestic god, Local.

The sanctuary was active between the II and IV centuries A.D.

O Facho was a great center of pilgrimage in the second and fourth centuries.

In any other site of the peninsula such order number found  

161 appeared sake. Some of the recovered Enrique Suarez Masso in 1963 and Marino and his son Joseph.

They are deposited in the Museum of Pontevedra and the Quiñones de León, Vigo. The rest of the order, 119, were discovered in successive campaigns from the 2003, with the participation of a team of specialists Galicians and the German Archaeological Institute, Jose Suarez to head archaeologists.

The pilgrims climbed the Facho and on top of the mountain, and "planted" on earth your ara or shrine, a column of a carved stone dedicated to the god Bero Breo, were humble altars, which mostly did not exceed the meter height, although some exceed 1,70- with parkas and concrete inscriptions. He was asked health.

The inscription, in Latin, is always the same : " Deus lari Berobreo aram posuit prol salute ."

At the end of the existence of the sanctuary, the place was abandoned ; the interest will fall and acopiándose , the sometimes fragmented , so remain even today.

What is not legend is the legacy left Sano Berobreo Andrés . Even the thirties of the last century , O Hío was a place of pilgrimage in the style of Santa Marta or A Pobra , with coffins and sick of all kinds from different parts of southern Galicia.

Facho the sanctuary was abandoned without violence and never returned to perform rites in place.

Everything indicates that the cult Berobreo after suffering a process of Christianization , was absorbed by San Andrés  

Vestiges of the Castreña and Roman Culture .

During the Roman occupation of Galicia, which Morrazo belonged to the convent Bracarense (with capital in Braga) and indigenous people who inhabited these lands between the Lérez and the Vigo estuary was included in the tribe of the Helleni, a name that should not induce to believe they were people of Greek colonization.

These Indians lived in villages called castros were circular or elliptical walls made of stones and earth in high places, in the houses were and are the towns of pre-Roman and Roman times.

I stand in Cangas Castros O Castelo in Darbo, Liboreiro in Coiro e o Facho not Hío. Nestes Castros * atopouse da Roman ceramics and Roman altars, dedicated to indíxenas deuses. All eles deserves special attention by being unique in Galicia genone non só na Iberian Peninsula "O Facho in Hío."

In the mountain of O Facho, we find the Sanctuary of God "Bero Breo" god "local" when he was asked health.

From the Roman era is the so-called village Pipín and three pools found on the beach Pintens who were engaged in salting fish

The name of the villa  

Cangas name appears for the first time in history in a document from 1160 in which King Ferdinand II mistress to inheritance " " Cangas , located along the sea, one such Varela , presumably a gentleman.

O Birth of the Villa ..

In the first half of the fifteenth century, many residents of the neighboring parishes of Darbo and leather sit on the waterfront; for which purpose are references to living i plying their trade of giddy at the Port of Cangas. Their number would be higher than the parish of Darbo, then articulating an emerging urban center where two neighborhoods stand, O Sinal and O Costal, primitive nucleus of the town.

In 1467, due to the climate of political anarchy and the constant abuses of the nobility, he came Cangas immersed in a popular revolt known how antisatately "Irmandiña War II". That's when the rebels toppled the Fortress of Darbo, belonging to the archbishop's miter Santiago.

Hinder our population to be cited as village from the sixteenth century, when the church would become Collegiate in 1545. Today other important buildings such as the Hospital stands are built, and is already set to head Jurisdiction Morrazo , equipped Regiment (Town Hall), with notaries, public notaries and judges nominated Archbishop of Santiago pole. It would depend Cangas since then, and she charged half through faithful tithe (tax inspectors) themselves.

Our population is beginning to be cited as village from the sixteenth century, when the church would become Collegiate in 1545. At that time other important buildings such as the Hospital stands are built, and is already set to head Jurisdiction Morrazo , equipped Regiment (Town Hall), with notaries, public notaries, and judges appointed by the Archbishop of Santiago. It would depend Cangas since then, and she charged half through faithful tithe (tax inspectors) themselves.

In the early seventeenth Cangas prosperous economy in crisis after the invasion of Pirates "Barbary Pirates" in 1617. Soon after, a large number of witch trials, including that of "Mary Soliña" appear in the villa.

In 1702, residents watched in horror as a giant Anglo-Dutch team delves into the river, chasing a Franco-Spanish fleet from America laden with immense riches. In prevention, the greatest assets had been transferred to other towns and villages nearby, this once Cangas escaped the looting.

However, other populations of the estuary (how Redondela) were the subject of prey and pillaxe by the enemy, after the victory in the "Battle of Vigo Bay".

Terras poboación cultivate land that are of direct rule of the ecclesiastical and noble sectors that pay for the same forums, which are perceived by sharecroppers gentlemen (hidalgos second row aforan land to farmers).

After 1750 industrial activity salting passes the hands of the Catalans promoters that are installed in Bueu and have factories in Aldan and Hío.

In the early twentieth century, salted fish begin to make way for canneries that will take the role of industrial activity, and after 1939 the huge canner complex Masso that will have more than 1000 jobs is installed in Cangas and enters into crisis in the 1980s to disappear.

Today the town is a town that económiocamente depends on the area of ​​Vigo although the service sector is the main activity, remains important the fisheries sector with an important seamanship fishing in the Gran Sol fishing grounds and Africa.

The future is in the commitment to tourism. There is a large real estate development, because its climate, beaches, water sports and cuisine make it the second residence of many visitors.   

History of the whaling in Cangas ...

Industrial whaling began in the second half of the nineteenth century, with the emergence of two technical innovators who revived this activity, invention and refinement of the barrel speargun by the Norwegian Svend Foyn on the one hand and on the other propulsion steam and the metal hull of the craft. Even this time to hunt was handmade and was not without risks.

At this time there are two whaling companies operating in Galicia, the Spanish whaling company, created in 1914 an initiative of Norwegian capital, which did not start its activity until years later, due to the First World War.

It will operate initially in the area of ​​the Strait of Gibraltar, with Norwegian technicians who advise the Spaniards. It will begin its activity in Galicia in 1924 with the opening of the factory Caneliñas ..

The other company was the Corona Company Limited, established in Vigo, which obtains its first authorization to pursue the whaling in December 1923 on behalf of Don Cipriano Roque de Careaga, and Cortina. This company is also associated with other Norwegian nationality. The following year, in 1924, and before the opening Caneliñas factory began its industrial activity in the factory ship Alfonso XIII, which anchors first Cove Barra, but also later in the estuary of Aldán.

Given these data we can proudly hold that industrial whaling activity in Galicia took the start in our City. This company used for hunting, foreign-made ships, Norwegian and British, suitable for purpose, Corona I, II, III, IV, which supplied with their catch the factory ship.

In 1927 it ends the first phase of the industrial exploitation of the whale basically due to economic factors. The arrival of the Civil and World wars, assumed that this activity until many years later, once this war episode. As regards Galicia, the activity is taken up again in the restored factory Caneliñas by Industrias Whaling S.A. (IBSA), which started its activity in 1951, obtaining permission to go hunting renewed until the arrival of the moratorium. The second authorization granted at this time is for the factory Balea CB. Company is in participating equally Masso Hermanos SA, Barriers and IBSA, which began operating in 1955 from the factory Balea in Cangas, taking advantage of its facilities dismantled equipment factory Benzú, now territory of Marruecos.ns material gives dismantled factory Benzú.

Already in 1964 a license to Masso S.A Brothers who will act from Cape Morás in the Lucense navy is granted.

The three companies will subsequently to merge under the name of IBSA, name that would end all of its activities with the entry into force of the moratorium.  

The factory would remain active Cangas thirty years, from 1955-1985. The best time for hunting were the summer and autumn months, taking advantage of the migration of whales. In the beginning of the activity Salgueirón, the campaign began in April, although with reduced capturasse and delayed until June.

The hunting area was located about 40 or 50 miles off the coast, with the presence catch rare east of the nine degrees west longitude. Normally a boat out of the factory and two Caneliñas Cangas and Cape Morás respectively. With the arrival catches occurred regardless of the source port, depending on the shortest distance from the factory to the ground, because in the coastal hunting was very important that the catch be prosecuted immediately to avoid losses in product quality.

Relatively recently , after the cessation of whaling activad , several gave ships were anchored in the harbor basin of Cangas , print we can remember still admiring the great photographic paper found at the entrance to the building in the Old Town Hall in Rúa Real.

Be that as it , too whaling ended in Cangas , and past splendor was only the oxide that was covering the old facilities .

XV century.

The "Irmandiña" War in Cangas

Sparrows against Falcons ... ...

In 1467, he began one of the most significant events in the history of Galicia, which Cangas, of course, was no stranger.

Then the abuses and excesses of the Galician nobility were of such magnitude that had engulfed the entire Kingdom in complete anarchy. His strengths will become a nest of criminals; robberies and crimes of all kinds were commonplace throughout the country, replacing the order and justice in the pecking order. In addition, the excessive desire of feudal lords for aggrandize and enrich led to usurp ecclesiastical lordships and to star ongoing fighting each other.

Everything you eventually exasperates-the spirits of the peasantry and the cities, which since 1464 principiaron to seek the consent of the King to form brotherhoods that would be responsible for ensuring security and peace. From this time, the facts were precipitated. The associative movement, which started in the major population centers, spread like wildfire even a stream of recent rural confines, to lead to the formation of the "Holy Brotherhood of the Kingdom of Galicia". Their elected representatives were considered royal delegates, and as such assumed power.

The resolution of the "mayors" and deputies "" irmandiños apply when justice was relentless: many murderers and robbers were summarily executed by "asaetamento". Subsequently, the irmandiña anger was directed against the ultimate symbol of feudal oppression strengths. An immense popular army surrounded and ended up ousting no less than 140 towers and castles throughout the country, after which the defeat of the great nobles was complete, fleeing these to Portugal or Castile. Between 1467 and 1469, the Holy Brotherhood was the only government that took Galicia.

In Cangas, the stately opprobrium was represented by the strength of Darbo (recreation above) ,, belonging from 1184 to the archbishop of Santiago. Located at the summit of which is now known as Monte Castelo, it was basically a fence or wall, reinforced with four bastions, and inside two houses were located protected in turn by a wooden palisade. Although constituted a rather flimsy construction, its location made it a point very difficult to attack.

Also our villa had its own "brotherhood" with its corresponding "mayor" Xoán de Fontefría. And the anger of the rebels cangueses fell on the nearby castle, which they came to besiege "all one" according speak of the time. We do not know if it was taken to the assault or was delivered peacefully put it his "Meriño" Vasco Fernandez. Which is certain is that it was totally destroyed, and almost certainly "to leave no stone unturned" as the irmandiños used to do. And still have time Cangas popular militias to participate in the overthrow from neighboring fortresses, such as Soutomaior.

After that "gorri¡ones" triumph over the "hawks" for three long years, it was time that the latter seek redress. The manor counteroffensive 1469 ended with the final disruption of the brotherhoods, but nothing would ever be the same. The military defeat of 1467 marked the beginning of the end of the feudal power of the Galician aristocracy; their social isolation had become clear, and also its complete inability to lead the country politically.

The coming decades would lead to a strengthening of the monarchy and its institutions, and Galicia come steadily in the news was of modernity.

XVII century

Cangas destruction by the Pirates.

Las Brujas de Cangas and the Inquisition || Maria Soliña

Between 1619 and 1628 many women were judged pole Cangas Tribunal of the Holy Office (Inquisition) for alleged "witchcraft". Today we know that these unfortunate, who ended up confessing to atrocities force grisly torments were actually victims of an invention of the inquisitors. Hunting "witch" it was directly caused by the general impoverishment that followed the Turkish invasion of 1617. The gentry saw down their income alarmingly, so he sought by all means necessary resources to maintain their level of lifetime. A Inquisition, composed almost exclusively by members of this social group was an effective means to achieve its purpose.

The primary objective was to take hold the certain people their "rights presentation" in chapels and "freguesías". This right was the successor of the founder of a church could propose to his head when falling vacant, and in turn share in the benefits that this will generate. To hide his reprehensible purpose, they mixed some yes possessed them with others that were "paupers". Many of them were totally helpless, having been widowed after the sad events of 1617.

This was the case of the most famous of the "witches" of Cangas alleged or at least most of their time transpired, immortalized in song how what you say, "Oh that Soliña stayed, Mary, Mary Soliña". This cantiga seems to indicate that people remembered it, you Mais que as evil and pernicious witch, as poor and most unhappy woman, a reflection of all the sufferings of the people.

Maria Soliña, possessing rights of presentation in Aldan and Moaña, entered the secret prisons of the Inquisition in 1621. The whole process was aimed at showing that this harmless woman enjoyed demonic capable powers to cause countless evils, and had given his soul to the devil. But it was their own confessions of Mary Soliña, caused by the torture, which came to touch the paroxysm. He said being a witch since had more than 20 years and have had nefarious acts with the devil for a long time, which appeared to him as a ma

And while this declaring Mary Soliña pleaded clemency to the Court and proclaimed his repentance, then he claimed he had never disowned heart of Our Lord, but only in words. All this reveals the soul of this woman despair as a result of a terrible physical and psychological torture. On January 23, 1622 finally came the sentence. She was sentenced to confiscation of goods, must carry the penitential habit for half a year. We do not know came to fulfill all worthwhile, because your life will probably not last much longer. The physical consequences of torture could not fail to be noticed in a woman of 70 years old. His death certificate was not found yet. Maybe someday we discover where lie the remains punished.

Other many "witches" were tried over the years. Women like wool Catalina Church, who confessed to killing five creatures. Or as Elvira Martinez, Teresa Pérez, María de los Santos, ... these poor wretches deserve the respect of the unsung heroes of a people who had to suffer stoically infamous abuse and greed of a few. Future research may provide young light on their lives, but the collective memory will remember not like magicians, but as it were indeed, people of flesh and blood, with all its misery and greatness.

Maria Soliña. (Celso Emilio Ferreiro)

Roads poles of Cangas

the voice of the wind moaned

You must alone stayed

María Soliña.

The Turks destroyed the town of Cangas

In 1617, the most dramatic events that met Cangas to its long history took place. A Dec. 4, the inhabitants of the Vigo estuary looked aghast when eleven Turkish corsairs ships anchored in the Cies Islands. His purposes could not be more bloody: cause as much destruction as possible in the possessions of the Spanish Crown, and practice rapine and pillage.

Yet again the pirates tried to seize Vigo, unsuccessfully, before turning their bows against Cangas, who was then a humble fishing village, totally unprotected. Escasísima militia did not have any in fortified to resist, nor artillery. The early hours of the morning after one heavy bombardment, about 1,000 men landed in Rodeira and Punta Balea, before the terrified locals. A depleted numerous poorly armed troops joined neighbors, starring in a desperate struggle, overwhelmingly outnumbered. The greatest heroism of those men and women was that it was the sense of honor which prevented them abandon their homes before the invader, because in such conditions was impensablela victory.

Within hours , those who managed to flee to the nearby mountains could contemplate a frightening spectacle : the town was burning on all sides , including the Collegiate and Hospital, and dozens of corpses littered the streets. Even the neighboring Turks were devoted to plunders - for three days ( in which also burned the church Darbo ) before disappearing with their trail of death . With them they took a great booty , but also dozens of people face the captivity of Algeria

The town of Cangas took a long time to recover from this disaster . Its population was dezmada ; its economy , ruined . A young whip, hunger, was primed with the most disadvantaged , which would be aggravated by poor harvests in the coming years . Those terrible events left in the collective memory of Cangas deep scars of pain and fear, that in the end they were immortalized by oral tradition . It is the case of a famous anonymous poem of the time, he says in one of his verses :

The Battle of Rende, 1702

In 1702 , our shores were the scene of one of the bloodiest naval battles reminiscent of the history of Europe . By then , the continent was torn in a conflict of large dimensions , which was at stake to succession to the Crown of Spain .

The possibility that Philip of Anjou, grandson of Rei Sol, acceded to the Spanish throne, provoked strong reaction from other powers, afraid to see united the French military and economic power with the immense potential of the Spanish colonial empire. On 11 June this year even set sail from Havana Lana, heading to Cadiz, the Frota de Indias: 19 Spanish galleons, escorted by 22 French ships, carrying the most precious cargo that had ever crossed the Atlantic. But midway through the journey, they discovered that a powerful Anglo-Dutch team was waiting at the Cape Vincent Sano. So Admiral Manuel de Velasco, following the advice of a Galician pilot, pushing towards the Vigo estuary, which they entered on 22 September. The convoy took refuge in Ensenada Sano Simon, immediately beginning preparations for the defense: the passage of Rande was obstructed by a barrier of bulls, cables and small boats, while militia hastily recruited to reinforce the two small strong existing the each side of the strait. In parallel, 1,200 cars were seized in the country to transport the goods to Madrid.

A month was exactly the time it took Rooke to discover the whereabouts of the Frota de la Plata, and on October 22 he entered the estuary larger than around here would have been team. The first task of the Anglo-Dutch was to take the castles of Rande and Corveiro, which succeeded the next day without great difficulty. So began the great battle. The French artillery managed to contain the opponent we first stakes. That was until the "Torbay" British ship logo, and armed with pickaxes, he managed to break the barrier that prevented the passage of the strait. The opponent could rub and penetrate the depths of the estuary, where the failure of room for maneuver left no recourse but to approach. The fierce combat combined with the use of numerous incendiary materials, causing a gruesome and frightening spectacle. The numerical difference between one team and another was very large, and although the French fought valiantly, defeat was inevitable. It was then the commander of the Spanish merchant rubbed, lacking means of defense, ordered to sink the ships to prevent them from falling into enemy hands. Much has been speculated about the possibility that the Spanish galleons sunk if they were loaded with untold riches, thus cementing the legend of the "Treasure of Rande".

Even today , there were numerous expeditions that searched . Probably the most valuable part of the cargo had already left Plateau during throughout the month that was rubbed into the estuary. However , it does not prune ruled that an important part still remained in the holds of ships. That suggests the four million pesos that led the enemy , and together with the seven warships captured six galleons , were a considerable booty .

Which itself is except for doubt is that the battle of Rande was a butcher . The Franco- Spanish side fell 2,000 men, while the English and Dutch were killed about 800. Also of course it was a disaster for the defeated. The French lost their best warships, and the Spaniards were left without boats to race Indies. And while our country sought to quickly forget so bitter defeat ( to which he contributed not a little the relative success in the overall balance of the war, which allowed the consolidation of the Bourbons on the throne ) , the victory of England and Holland got huge spread throughout Europe, and it was held for a long time . The " callede Vigo " in the center of London , follows the British remember the great importance that this fact had weapons , like Jules Verne I immortalized the treasures of Rande in his novel " 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea .